Pew: Democrats Increasingly Favor Government Censorship of ‘False’ Ideas: THEY ALL WANT THAT ANYONE CENSORS HERSELF/HIMSELF


Pew: Democrats Increasingly Favor Government Censorship of ‘False’ Ideas

free speech
Drew Angerer/Getty Images

The Pew Research Center has released a survey showing that Democrats increasingly favor government censorship of “false information online.”

In just three years, the share of Democrats and Democratic leaners who support government censorship of information has risen a remarkable 25 points, from just 40 percent in 2018 to 65 percent today, Pew revealed this week.

A significant majority of Democrats now “say the government should take steps to restrict false information, even if it means limiting freedom of information,” Pew stated.

By contrast, Republicans and those who tend Republican have moved in the opposite direction during the same time period, creating a stark partisan divide in choosing between freedom of speech and government control.

While in 2018, 37 percent of Republicans favored government restrictions on the information flow (just 3 percent below Democrats at the time), today that number has fallen to just over a quarter (28 percent).

This means that Democrats’ support for government censorship is now more than double that of Republicans.

Pew reports on growing partisan divide in debate of censorship vs freedom of speech.

Pew reports on growing partisan divide in debate of censorship vs freedom of speech.

Both Democrats and Republicans prefer Big Tech censorship to government censorship, but even in this case, Republicans overwhelmingly favor freedom of expression to any censorship at all, while Democrats lean heavily in the opposite direction.

Pew found that among Democrats and those who lean Democrat, those who support tech companies restricting the free flow of information to filter out “false” ideas has risen from 60 percent to 76 percent in the past three years.

Among Republicans and those who lean Republican, on the other hand, the share of those who support tech censorship has dropped by 11 percent during the same period, from 48 percent in 2018 to just 37 percent today.

WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 23: With an image of himself on a screen in the background, Facebook co-founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg testifies before the House Financial Services Committee in the Rayburn House Office Building on Capitol Hill October 23, 2019 in Washington, DC. Zuckerberg testified about Facebook's proposed cryptocurrency Libra, how his company will handle false and misleading information by political leaders during the 2020 campaign and how it handles its users’ data and privacy. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

WASHINGTON, DC – OCTOBER 23: With an image of himself on a screen in the background, Facebook co-founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg testifies before the House Financial Services Committee in the Rayburn House Office Building on Capitol Hill October 23, 2019 in Washington, DC. Zuckerberg testified about Facebook’s proposed cryptocurrency Libra, how his company will handle false and misleading information by political leaders during the 2020 campaign and how it handles its users’ data and privacy. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

This means that the partisan divide in the debate between Tech censorship vs. free speech has more than tripled over the past three years, from a split of 12 percent in 2018 to a gulf of 39 percent in 2021.

Numerous accounts suggest that the task of discerning “false” information from true data or mere opinion is fraught with difficulty and easily influenced by the subjective preconceptions of “fact-checkers.”

In his dystopian novel 1984, George Orwell famously referred to holding and sharing unacceptable opinions as “thoughtcrimes,” which were investigated and punished by “thought police.”

“The thought police would get him just the same,” Winston Smith reflects in the novel. “He had committed – would have committed, even if he had never set pen to paper – the essential crime that contained all others in itself. Thoughtcrime, they called it.”

“Thoughtcrime was not a thing that could be concealed forever,” he continued. “You might dodge successfully for a while, even for years, but sooner or later they were bound to get you.”


Please let us know if you're having issues with commenting.

By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.



Lega contro il Green Pass: ma il blitz non ferma Draghi. Avanti sull’estensione agli statali e poi alle imprese

Oggi il premier in conferenza stampa anticiperà i prossimi impegni anti Covid del governo. Salvini prova a contattare il capo del governo per ridimensionare l'accaduto.




  1. Invasion of the United States

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    The concept of an invasion of the United States relates to military theory and doctrine which address the feasibility and practicality of a foreign power attacking and successfully invading the United States. The country has been physically invaded a few times – once during the War of 1812, once during the Mexican–American War, several times during the Mexican Border War, and twice during World War II. During the Cold War, most of the US military strategy was geared towards repelling an attack by the Soviet Union.[1]

    Early attacks

    The military history of the United States began with a foreign power on US soil: the British Army during the American Revolutionary War. After American independence, the next attack on American soil was during the War of 1812, also with Britain, the first and only time since the end of the Revolutionary War in which a foreign power occupied the American capital (the capital city of Philadelphia was also captured by the British during the Revolution).

    On April 25, 1846, Mexican forces invaded Brownsville, Texas, which they had long claimed as Mexican territory, and attacked US troops patrolling the Rio Grande in an incident known as the Thornton Affair, which sparked the Mexican–American War. The Texas Campaign remained the only campaign on American soil, and the rest of the action in that conflict occurred in California and New Mexico, which were then part of Mexico, and in current Mexico.

    The American Civil War may be seen as an invasion of home territory to some extent since both the Confederate and the Union Armies made forays into the other's home territory. After the Civil War, the threat of an invasion from a foreign power was small, and it was not until the 20th century that any real military strategy was developed to address the possibility of an attack on America.[2]

    In 1915, the Liberating Army of Races and Peoples attempted to execute its Plan of San Diego to reconquer the southwestern United States, setting off the Bandit War and conducting raids into Texas from across the Mexican Border.

    On March 9, 1916, Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa and his Villistas invaded Columbus, New Mexico in the Border War's Battle of Columbus, triggering the Pancho Villa Expedition in response, led by Major General John J. Pershing.[3]

    European threats

    Until the early 20th century, the greatest potential threat to attack the United States was seen as the United Kingdom. Seacoast defense in the United States was organized on that basis, and military strategy was developed to forestall a British attack and attack and occupy Canada. "War Plan Red" was specifically designed to deal with a British attack on the United States and a subsequent invasion of Canada. Similar plans[4] existed for a 20th-century war with Mexico, although the ability of the Mexican Army to attack and occupy American soil was considered negligible, as demonstrated by the Mexican reluctance to accept the provisions of the Zimmermann Telegram. Mexican rebels, led by Pancho Villa, briefly invaded the U.S. on supply raids during World War I.

    In 1921, Canadian Lieutenant Colonel James "Buster" Sutherland Brown drafted what can be called the Canadian counterpart of War Plan Red, Defence Scheme No. 1. According to the plan, Canada would invade the United States as quickly as possible if evidence of an American invasion was found. The Canadians would gain a foothold in the Northern US to allow time for Canada to prepare its war effort and receive aid from Britain. They would also destroy key bridges and railroads. The plan had detractors, who saw it as unrealistic, but also supporters who believed that it could conceivably have worked.

    On the opposite side of the Atlantic, Imperial German plans for the invasion of the United States were maintained from 1897 to 1906 but were not seriously considered because the German Empire had insufficient resources to carry them out successfully. Early versions planned to engage the United States Atlantic Fleet off Norfolk, Virginia, followed by shore bombardment of eastern cities. Later versions envisioned a land invasion of New York City and Boston. The foreign policy of Kaiser Wilhelm II, sought to limit the US ability to interfere in European affairs, rather than as a territorial conquest. Until April 6, 1917, when the US ended its neutrality during World War I, German agents were dispatched to the country to prevent supplies from being sold to the Allied Powers, which culminated in sabotage operations like Black Tom (July 30, 1916) and Kingsland (January 11, 1917).

    World War II

    During World War II, the defense of Hawaii and the continental United States was part of the Pacific theater and American theater respectively. The American Campaign Medal was awarded to military personnel who served in the continental United States in official duties, while those serving in Hawaii were awarded the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal.

    Nazi Germany

    When Germany declared war on the U.S. in 1941, the German High Command immediately recognized that current German military strength would be unable to attack or invade the United States directly. Military strategy instead focused on submarine warfare, with U-boats striking American shipping in an expanded Battle of the Atlantic, particularly an all-out assault on U.S. merchant shipping during Operation Drumbeat.

    Adolf Hitler dismissed the threat of America, stating that the country had no racial purity and thus no fighting strength, and further stated that "The American public is made up of Jews and Negroes".[5] German military and economic leaders had far more realistic views, with some such as Albert Speer recognizing the enormous productive capacity of America's factories as well as the rich food supplies which could be harvested from the American heartland.[6]

    In 1942, German military leaders did briefly investigate and consider the possibility of a cross Atlantic attack against the U.S.—most cogently expressed with the RLM's Amerika Bomber trans-Atlantic range bomber design competition, first issued in the spring of 1942—proceeded forward with only five airworthy prototype aircraft created between two of the competitors, but this plan had to be abandoned due to both the lack of staging bases in the Western Hemisphere, and Germany's own rapidly decreasing capacity to produce such aircraft as the war wore on. Thereafter, Germany's greatest hope of an attack on America was to wait to see the result of that nation's war with Japan. By 1944, with U-Boat losses soaring and with the occupation of Greenland and Iceland, it was clear to the German military leaders that the dwindling German armed forces had no further hope to attack the United States directly. In the end, German military strategy was in fact geared toward surrendering to America, with many of the Western Front battles fought solely for the purpose of escaping the advance of the Red Army and surrendering instead to the Western Allies.[7]

    One of the only officially recognized landings of German soldiers on American soil was during Operation Pastorius, in which eight German sabotage agents were landed in the United States (one team landed in New York, the other in Florida) by U-Boats. The team was quickly captured and put on trial as spies, rather than prisoners-of-war, due to the nature of their assignment. After the court found them guilty of espionage, six German agents were executed in the electric chair at the Washington, D.C. jail. The other two were not put to death and instead received prison terms because they willingly turned on their comrades by defecting to the United States and told the FBI about the mission's plan. In 1948, three years after World War II ended, the two were freed and returned to then Allied-occupied Germany, later to be divided between West and East Germany.

    The Luftwaffe began planning for possible trans-Atlantic strategic bombing missions early in World War II, with Albert Speer stating in his own post-war book, Spandau: The Secret Diaries, that Adolf Hitler was fascinated with the idea of New York City in flames. Before his Machtergreifung in January 1933, Hitler had already, in 1928, thought that the United States would be the next serious foe the future Third Reich would need to confront, after the Soviet Union.[8] The proposal by the RLM to Germany's military aviation firms for the Amerika Bomber project was issued to Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring in the late spring of 1942, about six months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, for the competition to produce such a strategic bomber design, with only Junkers and Messerschmitt each building a few airworthy prototype airframes before the war's end.

    Imperial Japan

    The feasibility of a full-scale invasion of Hawaii and the continental United States by Imperial Japan was considered negligible, with Japan possessing neither the manpower nor logistical ability to do so.[9] Minoru Genda of the Imperial Japanese Navy advocated invading Hawaii after attacking Oahu on December 7, 1941, believing that Japan could use Hawaii as a base to threaten the continental United States, and perhaps as a negotiating tool for ending the war.[10] The American public in the first months after the attack on Pearl Harbor feared a Japanese landing on the West Coast of the United States, eventually reacting with alarm to a rumored raid in the Battle of Los Angeles. Although the invasion of Hawaii was never considered by the Japanese military after Pearl Harbor, they did carry out Operation K, a mission on March 4, 1942, involving two Japanese aircraft dropping bombs on Honolulu to disrupt repair and salvage operations following the attack on Pearl Harbor three months earlier, which only caused minor damage.

    On June 3/4, 1942, the Japanese Navy attacked the Territory of Alaska as part of the Aleutian Islands Campaign with the bombing of Dutch Harbor in the city of Unalaska, inflicting destruction and killing 43 Americans. A few days later, 6,000–7,000 Japanese troops landed and occupied the Aleutian Islands of Attu and Kiska; they were driven out entirely a year later between May and August 1943 by U.S. and Canadian forces.[11][12] The Aleutian Islands campaign in early June 1942 was the only foreign invasion of U.S. soil during World War II and the first significant foreign occupation of American soil since the War of 1812.[13] Japan also conducted air attacks through the use of fire balloons. Six American civilians were killed in such attacks; Japan also launched two manned air attacks on Oregon as well as two incidents of Japanese submarines shelling the U.S. West Coast.[14]

    Although Alaska was the only incorporated territory invaded by Japan, successful invasions of unincorporated territories in the western Pacific shortly after Pearl Harbor included the Battle of Wake Island, Battle of Guam, and Philippines campaign.

    Cold War

    FEMA-estimated primary targets for Soviet nuclear attacks during the height of the Cold War.

    During the Cold War, the primary threat of an attack on the United States was viewed to be from the Soviet Union. In such an attack, nuclear warfare was projected to almost certainly happen, mainly in the form of intercontinental ballistic missile attacks as well as Soviet Navy launches of SLBMs at US coastal cities.[15]

    The first Cold War strategy against a Soviet attack on the United States was developed in 1948 and was made into an even firmer policy after the Soviet development of the nuclear weapon in 1949. By 1950, the United States had developed a defense plan to repel a Soviet nuclear bomber force through the use of interceptors and anti-aircraft missiles and to launch its own bomber fleet into Soviet airspace from bases in Alaska and Europe. By the end of the 1950s, both Soviet and US strategy included nuclear submarines and long range nuclear missiles, both of which could strike in just ten to thirty minutes; bomber forces took as long as four to six hours to reach their targets. The concept thus developed of the nuclear triad of all three weapons platforms (land based, submarine, and bomber) being coordinated in unison for a devastating first strike, followed by a counterstrike that would be accompanied by "mopping up" missions of nuclear bombers.

    Operation Washtub was a top secret joint operation between the United States Air Force and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Primarily lead by FBI director J. Edgar Hoover and then his protégé Joseph F. Carroll, the operation was carried out with the primary goal of leaving stay-behind agents in Alaska Territory for covert intelligence gathering, with a secondary goal of maintaining evasion and escape facilities for US forces.

    On June 22, 1955, a US Navy P2V Neptune with a crew of 11 was attacked by two Soviet Air Forces fighter aircraft along the International Date Line in international waters over the Bering Straits, between Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska. The P2V crashed on the island's northwestern cape, near the village of Gambell. Villagers rescued the crew, three of whom were wounded by Soviet fire and four of whom were injured in the crash.

    American nuclear warfare planning was nearly put to the test during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The subsequent blockade of Cuba also added a fourth element into American nuclear strategy: surface ships and the possibility of low-yield nuclear attacks against deployed fleets. Indeed, the US had already tested the feasibility of nuclear attacks on ships during Operation Crossroads. Reportedly, one Soviet submarine nearly launched a nuclear torpedo at an American warship, but the three officers required to initiate the launch (the Captain, Executive Officer Vasily Arkhipov, and the Political Officer) could not agree to do so.

    By the 1970s, the concept of mutually-assured destruction led to an American nuclear strategy that would remain relatively consistent until the end of the Cold War.[16]

    Modern era

    In of 21st-century warfare, United States strategic planners have been forced to contend with various threats to the United States ranging from direct attack, terrorism, and unconventional warfare such as a cyberwarfare or economic attack on American investments and financial stability.

    Direct attack

    Range of China's nuclear missiles. China is capable of a nuclear attack on most of the world's countries, including the United States.

    Several modern armies operate nuclear weapons with ranges in the thousands of kilometers. The US is therefore vulnerable to nuclear attack by powers such as the United Kingdom,[17] Russia, China,[18] France, and India. However, the UK and France are both members of NATO and longtime US allies while India is a Major Defense Partner of the United States and a member of the Quad and so an attack on the US by any of these countries is extremely unlikely.

    The United States Northern Command and the United States Indo-Pacific Command are the top US military commands overseeing the defense of the Continental US, and Hawaii respectively.

    Cyberwarfare and economic attacks

    The risk of cyberattacks on civilian, government, and military computer targets was brought to light after China became suspected of using government-funded hackers to disrupt American banking systems, defense industries, telecommunication systems, power grids, utility controls, air traffic and train traffic control systems, and certain military systems such as C4ISR and ballistic missile launch systems.[19]

    Attacks on the US economy, such as efforts to devalue the dollar or corner trade markets to isolate the United States, are currently considered another method by which a foreign power may seek to attack the country.

    Geographic feasibility

    Many experts have considered the US impossible to invade because of its major industries, reliable and fast supply lines, large geographical size, geographic location, population size, and difficult regional features. For example, the deserts in the Southwest and the Great Lakes in the Midwest insulate the country's major population centers from threats of invasion. An invasion from outside North America would require long supply chains across the Pacific or Atlantic Oceans for a great reduction of overall power. Notably, no nation-state has enough power to threaten the US on the North American continent since Canada and Mexico enjoy generally-friendly relations with the US and are militarily weak in comparison.[20][21]

    Military expert Dylan Lehrke noted that an amphibious assault on either the West Coast or the East Coast is simply too insignificant to get a beachhead on both coasts. Even if the foreign power managed to go undetected in light of modern surveillance capability, it still could not build up a force of any size before it was pushed back into the sea. In addition, Hawaii is largely protected by the 40,000-strong US military with valuable assets, which acts as a huge deterrent to any foreign invasion of the island state and thereby the Continental US.[22] Thus, the invasion of the continent would have to come from the land borders through Canada or Mexico. An attack from Mexico is possible, but California and Texas have the largest concentration of defense industries and military bases in the country and provide an effective deterrent from any attack, with the Southwestern desert effectively dividing any invasion into two. An attack launched from Canada on the Midwest or the West would be limited to light infantry and would fail to take over population centers or other important strategic points since there are mostly rural farmland and unpopulated national parks along the border and powerful airbases located hundreds of miles south. That provides US military personnel or civilian militias an advantage to conduct guerrilla warfare. This has resulted in many referring to the US as uninvadable. [23]

    In popular culture

    A number of films and other related media have dealt with fictitious portrayals of an attack against the US by a foreign power. One of the more well-known films is Red Dawn, detailing an attack against the US by the Soviet Union, Cuba, and Nicaragua. A 2012 remake details a similar attack, launched by North Korea and ultranationalists controlling Russia. Other films include Invasion U.S.A., Olympus Has Fallen, and White House Down. The Day After and By Dawn's Early Light, both of which detail nuclear war between US and Soviet forces. Another film that shows an invasion of the US was the 1999 film South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut in which Canadian forces invade the main characters' hometown in Colorado. A bloodless Soviet takeover aftermath is depicted in the 1987 miniseries Amerika.

    In Philip K. Dick's The Man in the High Castle, the United States is occupied by both Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, which are separated by a neutral zone, after invasions of both the West Coast and the East Coast.

    A terrorist occupation of Washington, D.C. was the subject of a G.I. Joe cartoon episode, when Serpentor led Cobra forces to occupy the American capital. A terrorist occupation of the capital was also seen in G.I. Joe: Retaliation. In The Simpsons' episode "You Only Move Twice," series protagonist Homer Simpson goes to work for what he doesn't know is a terrorist organization, whose leader threatens extreme violence and destruction in the mainland if various demands are not met; in the end, the terrorists seize control of the U.S. East Coast.

    In the video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, Russia invades several parts of the United States, including Washington, D.C., in retaliation to a supposedly U.S.-assisted terrorist attack on a Russian airport. In Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3, the battle spreads to New York. The video game Homefront depicts an invasion of the U.S. by a unified Korea while Homefront: The Revolution depicts North Korea invading and occupying the United States. In the real time strategy game World in Conflict, Soviet forces invade and occupy the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, but are unable to make true gains into the mainland before they are eventually thrown back into the sea, only occupying at most, a third of the state of Washington for a few months. In the game Turning Point: Fall of Liberty is an alternate universe of the Axis Powers winning World War II which results in Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan invading the United States in 1953. Bethesda Softworks's Wolfenstein: The New Order and The New Colossus are set in a world where Germany has won World War II, including a mainland invasion of U.S. after a nuclear bomb hit New York City. Part of Star Trek: Enterprise includes a similar scenario.

    The 2003 video game Freedom Fighters is set in an alternate history where the Soviet Union won the Cold War, conquered most of the world and has invaded the United States from both Alaska and New York City. In the video game Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 the Soviet Union launches a massive invasion of the United States, with an emphasis on deploying psychic beacons in order to mind control the population.


  2. Haslam, Jonathan, Russia's Cold War: From the October Revolution to the Fall of the Wall (2011), Yale University Press

  3. Merry, Robert W., A Country of Vast Designs: James K. Polk, the Mexican War and the Conquest of the American Continent, Simon & Schuster (2009)

  4. Katz, Friedrich. The Life and Times of Pancho Villa. Stanford University Press (1998)

  5. "571. War Plan Green". research.archives.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-04.

  6. Weikart, Richard, From Darwin to Hitler: Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany, Palgrave Macmillan (2006)

  7. Speer, Albert, Inside the Third Reich, Macmillan (New York and Toronto), 1970

  8. Toland, John, The Last 100 Days (Final Days of WWII in Europe); Barker – First edition (1965)

  9. Hillgruber, Andreas Germany and the Two World Wars, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1981 pp. 50–51

  10. "Why didn't the Japanese invade Pearl Harbor". www.researcheratlarge.com.

  11. Caravaggio, Angelo N. (Winter 2014). ""Winning" the Pacific War". Naval War College Review. 67 (1): 85–118. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14.

  12. http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/edu/ViewLoitLo.do;jsessionid=008FFD5ADA0FAFAEB0CD66C904BF2C0A?method=preview&id=6072&lang=EN

  13. https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/battle-of-attu

  14. "Battle of the Aleutian Islands". History.

  15. "Travel Oregon : Lodging & Attractions OR : Oregon Interactive Corp". web.oregon.com. Archived from the original on 2013-06-16.

  16. Sagan, Carl, The Cold and the Dark: The World After Nuclear War, W. W. Norton & Company (1984)

  17. Von Neumann J. & Wiener N., From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, MIT Press (1982), p. 261

  18. "Brown move to cut UK nuclear subs". 23 September 2009 – via news.bbc.co.uk.

  19. See DF-31.

  20. "Hacker group found in China, linked to big cyberattacks: Symantec". NBC News.

  21. "The United States' Geographic Challenge". Stratfor. Retrieved 3 June 2015.

  22. "How Geography Gave The US Power". Wendover Productions.

  23. Michael McFaul (May 8, 2018). From Cold War to Hot Peace: An American Ambassador in Putin's Russia. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-5447-1624-7.

  24. Oscar Rickett, We Asked a Military Expert if All the World's Armies Could Shut Down the US, Vice, December 22, 2013.

Josef Mengele



 Fauci's star rises as relationship with Biden deepens - POLITICO


 Josef Mengele

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Josef Mengele
Josef Mengele, Auschwitz. Album Höcker (cropped).jpg
Mengele at Auschwitz in 1944
  • Angel of Death (German: Todesengel)[1]
  • White Angel (German: der weiße Engel or weißer Engel)[2]
  • Wolfgang Gerhard (burial name)[2]
Born16 March 1911
Günzburg, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire
Died7 February 1979 (aged 67)
South Atlantic Ocean, off Bertioga, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil
Allegiance Germany
Service/branch Schutzstaffel
Years of service1938–1945
RankSS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain)
Service number
Alma materUniversity of Munich (PhD)
University of Frankfurt (MD)
Irene Schönbein
(m. 1939; div. 1954)
Martha Mengele
(m. 1958; his death 1979)
SignatureJosef Mengele Signature.svg

Josef Mengele ([ˈjoːzɛf ˈmɛŋələ] (About this soundlisten); 16 March 1911 – 7 February 1979), also known as the Angel of Death (German: Todesengel),[1] was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician during World War II. He is mainly remembered for his actions at the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he performed deadly experiments on prisoners, and was a member of the team of doctors who selected victims to be killed in the gas chambers[a] and was one of the doctors who administered the gas. With Red Army troops sweeping through German-occupied Poland, Mengele was transferred 280 kilometres (170 mi) from Auschwitz to the Gross-Rosen concentration camp on 17 January 1945, ten days before the arrival of the Soviet forces at Auschwitz.

Before the war, Mengele had received doctorates in anthropology and medicine, and began a career as a researcher. He joined the Nazi Party in 1937 and the SS in 1938. He was assigned as a battalion medical officer at the start of World War II, then transferred to the Nazi concentration camps service in early 1943 and assigned to Auschwitz, where he saw the opportunity to conduct genetic research on human subjects. His experiments focused primarily on twins, with no regard for the health or safety of the victims.[3][4]

After the war, Mengele fled to South America. He sailed to Argentina in July 1949, assisted by a network of former SS members. He initially lived in and around Buenos Aires, then fled to Paraguay in 1959 and Brazil in 1960, all the while being sought by West Germany, Israel, and Nazi hunters such as Simon Wiesenthal, who wanted to bring him to trial. Mengele eluded capture in spite of extradition requests by the West German government and clandestine operations by the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad. He drowned in 1979 after suffering a stroke while swimming off the coast of Bertioga, and was buried under the false name of Wolfgang Gerhard.[2] His remains were disinterred and positively identified by forensic examination in 1985.

Early life

Mengele was born in Günzburg on 16 March 1911, the eldest of three sons of Walburga (née Hupfauer) and Karl Mengele.[5] His two younger brothers were Karl Jr. and Alois. Their father was founder of the Karl Mengele & Sons company (later renamed as Mengele Agrartechnik [de]), which produced farming machinery.[6] Mengele was successful at school and developed an interest in music, art, and skiing.[7] He completed high school in April 1930 and went on to study philosophy in Munich,[8] where the headquarters of the Nazi Party were located.[9] In 1931 he joined the Der Stahlhelm, a paramilitary organization that was absorbed into the Nazi Sturmabteilung (Storm Detachment; SA) in 1934.[8][10] In 1935, Mengele earned a PhD in anthropology from the University of Munich.[8] In January 1937, he joined the Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene in Frankfurt, where he worked for Dr. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a German geneticist with a particular interest in researching twins.[8]

As von Verschuer's assistant, Mengele focused on the genetic factors that result in a cleft lip and palate, or a cleft chin.[11] His thesis on the subject earned him a cum laude doctorate in medicine (MD) from the University of Frankfurt in 1938.[12] (Both of his degrees were revoked by the issuing universities in the 1960s.)[13] In a letter of recommendation, von Verschuer praised Mengele's reliability and his ability to verbally present complex material in a clear manner.[14] The American author Robert Jay Lifton notes that Mengele's published works were in keeping with the scientific mainstream of the time, and would probably have been viewed as valid scientific efforts even outside Nazi Germany.[14]

On 28 July 1939, Mengele married Irene Schönbein, whom he had met while working as a medical resident in Leipzig.[15] Their only son, Rolf, was born in 1944.[16]

Military service

The ideology of Nazism brought together elements of antisemitism, racial hygiene, and eugenics, and combined them with pan-Germanism and territorial expansionism with the goal of obtaining more Lebensraum (living space) for the Germanic people.[17] Nazi Germany attempted to obtain this new territory by attacking Poland and the Soviet Union, intending to deport or kill the Jews and Slavs living there, who were considered by the Nazis to be inferior to the Aryan master race.[18]

Mengele joined the Nazi Party in 1937 and the Schutzstaffel (SS; 'Protection Squadron') in 1938. He received basic training in 1938 with the Gebirgsjäger (light infantry mountain troop) and was called up for service in the Wehrmacht (Nazi armed forces) in June 1940, some months after the outbreak of World War II. He soon volunteered for medical service in the Waffen-SS, the combat arm of the SS, where he served with the rank of SS-Untersturmführer (second lieutenant) in a medical reserve battalion until November 1940. He was next assigned to the SS-Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt (SS Race and Settlement Main Office) in Poznań, evaluating candidates for Germanization.[19][20]

In June 1941 Mengele was posted to Ukraine, where he was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class. In January 1942, he joined the 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking as a battalion medical officer. After rescuing two German soldiers from a burning tank, he was decorated with the Iron Cross 1st Class, the Wound Badge in Black, and the Medal for the Care of the German People. He was declared unfit for further active service in mid-1942, when he was seriously wounded in action near Rostov-on-Don. Following his recovery, he was transferred to the headquarters of the SS Race and Settlement Main Office in Berlin, at which point he resumed his association with von Verschuer, who was now director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics. Mengele was promoted to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) in April 1943.[21][22][23]


"Selection" of Hungarian Jews on the ramp at Birkenau, May/June 1944

In 1942 Auschwitz II (Birkenau), originally intended to house slave laborers, began to be used instead as a combined labour camp and extermination camp.[24][25] Prisoners were transported there by rail from all over German-occupied Europe, arriving in daily convoys.[26] By July 1942, SS doctors were conducting "selections" where incoming Jews were segregated, and those considered able to work were admitted into the camp while those deemed unfit for labor were immediately killed in the gas chambers.[27] The arrivals that were selected to die, about three-quarters of the total,[b] included almost all children, women with small children, pregnant women, all the elderly, and all of those who appeared (in a brief and superficial inspection by an SS doctor) to be not completely fit and healthy.[29][30]

In early 1943, von Verschuer encouraged Mengele to apply for a transfer to the concentration camp service.[21][31] Mengele's application was accepted and he was posted to Auschwitz, where he was appointed by SS-Standortarzt Eduard Wirths, chief medical officer at Auschwitz, to the position of chief physician of the Zigeunerfamilienlager (Romani family camp) at Birkenau,[21][31] a subcamp located on the main Auschwitz complex. The SS doctors did not administer treatment to the Auschwitz inmates but supervised the activities of inmate doctors who had been forced to work in the camp medical service.[32] As part of his duties, Mengele made weekly visits to the hospital barracks and ordered any prisoners who had not recovered after two weeks in bed to be sent to the gas chambers.[33]

Mengele's work also involved carrying out selections, a task that he chose to perform even when he was not assigned to do so, in the hope of finding subjects for his experiments,[34] with a particular interest in locating sets of twins.[35] In contrast to most of the other SS doctors, who viewed selections as one of their most stressful and unpleasant duties, he undertook the task with a flamboyant air, often smiling or whistling a tune.[36][32] He was one of the SS doctors responsible for supervising the administration of Zyklon B, the cyanide-a based pesticide that was used for the mass killings in the Birkenau gas chambers. He served in this capacity at the gas chambers located in crematoria IV and V.[37]

When an outbreak of noma—a gangrenous bacterial disease of the mouth and face—struck the Romani camp in 1943, Mengele initiated a study to determine the cause of the disease and develop a treatment. He enlisted the assistance of prisoner Berthold Epstein, a Jewish pediatrician and professor at Prague University. The patients were isolated in separate barracks and several afflicted children were killed so that their preserved heads and organs could be sent to the SS Medical Academy in Graz and other facilities for study. This research was still ongoing when the Romani camp was liquidated and its remaining occupants killed in 1944.[3]

When a typhus epidemic began in the women's camp, Mengele cleared one block of six hundred Jewish women and sent them to their deaths in the gas chambers. The building was then cleaned and disinfected and the occupants of a neighboring block were bathed, de–loused, and given new clothing before being moved into the clean block. This process was repeated until all of the barracks were disinfected. Similar procedures were used for later epidemics of scarlet fever and other diseases, with infected prisoners being killed in the gas chambers. For these actions, Mengele was awarded the War Merit Cross (Second Class with swords) and was promoted in 1944 to First Physician of the Birkenau subcamp.[38]

Human experimentation

(from l. to r.) Richard Baer, Josef Mengele, and Rudolf Höss in Auschwitz, 1944 (Höcker Album)

Mengele used Auschwitz as an opportunity to continue his anthropological studies and research into heredity, using inmates for human experimentation.[3] His medical procedures showed no consideration for the victims' health, safety, or physical and emotional suffering.[3][4] He was particularly interested in identical twins, people with heterochromia iridum (eyes of two different colors), dwarfs, and people with physical abnormalities.[3] A grant was provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation), at the request of von Verschuer, who received regular reports and shipments of specimens from Mengele. The grant was used to build a pathology laboratory attached to Crematorium II at Auschwitz II-Birkenau. [39] Dr. Miklós Nyiszli, a Hungarian Jewish pathologist who arrived in Auschwitz on 29 May 1944, performed dissections and prepared specimens for shipment in this laboratory.[40] The twin research was in part intended to prove the supremacy of heredity over environment and thus strengthen the Nazi premise of the genetic superiority of the Aryan race.[41] Nyiszli and others reported that the twin studies may also have been motivated by an intention to increase the reproduction rate of the German race by improving the chances of racially desirable people having twins.[42]

Mengele's research subjects were better fed and housed than the other prisoners, and temporarily spared from execution in the gas chambers.[43] His research subjects lived in their own barracks, where they were provided with a marginally better quality of food and somewhat improved living conditions than the other areas of the camp.[44] When visiting his young subjects, he introduced himself as "Uncle Mengele" and offered them sweets,[45] while at the same time being personally responsible for the deaths of an unknown number of victims whom he killed via lethal injection, shootings, beatings, and his deadly experiments.[46] In his 1986 book, Lifton describes Mengele as sadistic, lacking empathy, and extremely antisemitic, believing the Jews should be eliminated as an inferior and dangerous race.[47] Rolf Mengele later claimed that his father had shown no remorse for his wartime activities.[48]

A former Auschwitz inmate doctor said of Mengele:

He was capable of being so kind to the children, to have them become fond of him, to bring them sugar, to think of small details in their daily lives, and to do things we would genuinely admire ... And then, next to that, ... the crematoria smoke, and these children, tomorrow or in a half-hour, he is going to send them there. Well, that is where the anomaly lay.[49]

Jewish twins kept alive in Auschwitz for use in Mengele's medical experiments. The Red Army liberated these children in January 1945.

Twins were subjected to weekly examinations and measurements of their physical attributes by Mengele or one of his assistants.[50] The experiments he performed on twins included unnecessary amputation of limbs, intentionally infecting one twin with typhus or some other disease, and transfusing the blood of one twin into the other. Many of the victims died while undergoing these procedures,[51] and those who survived the experiments were sometimes killed and their bodies dissected once Mengele had no further use for them.[52] Nyiszli recalled one occasion on which Mengele personally killed fourteen twins in one night by injecting their hearts with chloroform.[32] If one twin died from disease, he would kill the other twin to allow comparative post-mortem reports to be produced for research purposes.[53]

Mengele's eye experiments included attempts to change the eye color by injecting chemicals into the eyes of living subjects, and he killed people with heterochromatic eyes so that the eyes could be removed and sent to Berlin for study.[54] His experiments on dwarfs and people with physical abnormalities included taking physical measurements, drawing blood, extracting healthy teeth, and treatment with unnecessary drugs and X-rays.[4] Many of his victims were dispatched to the gas chambers after about two weeks, and their skeletons were sent to Berlin for further analysis.[55] Mengele sought out pregnant women, on whom he would perform experiments before sending them to the gas chambers.[56] Alex Dekel, a survivor, reports witnessing Mengele performing vivisection without anesthesia, removing hearts and stomachs of victims.[57] Yitzhak Ganon, another survivor, reported in 2009 how Mengele removed his kidney without anesthesia. He was forced to return to work without painkillers.[58] Witness Vera Alexander described how Mengele sewed two Romani twins together, back to back, in a crude attempt to create conjoined twins;[51] both children died of gangrene after several days of suffering.[59]

After Auschwitz

Photograph from Mengele's Argentine identification document (1956)

Along with several other Auschwitz doctors, Mengele transferred to Gross-Rosen concentration camp in Lower Silesia on 17 January 1945, taking with him two boxes of specimens and the records of his experiments at Auschwitz. Most of the camp medical records had already been destroyed by the SS[60][61] by the time the Red Army liberated Auschwitz on 27 January.[62] Mengele fled Gross-Rosen on 18 February, a week before the Soviets arrived there, and traveled westward to Žatec in Czechoslovakia, disguised as a Wehrmacht officer. There he temporarily entrusted his incriminating documents to a nurse with whom he had struck up a relationship.[60] He and his unit then hurried west to avoid being captured by the Soviets, but were taken prisoners of war by the Americans in June 1945. Although Mengele was initially registered under his own name, he was not identified as being on the major war criminal list due to the disorganization of the Allies regarding the distribution of wanted lists, and the fact that he did not have the usual SS blood group tattoo.[63] He was released at the end of July and obtained false papers under the name "Fritz Ullman", documents he later altered to read "Fritz Hollmann".[64]

After several months on the run, including a trip back to the Soviet-occupied area to recover his Auschwitz records, Mengele found work near Rosenheim as a farmhand.[65] He eventually escaped from Germany on 17 April 1949,[66][67] convinced that his capture would mean a trial and death sentence. Assisted by a network of former SS members, he used the ratline to travel to Genoa, where he obtained a passport from the International Committee of the Red Cross under the alias "Helmut Gregor", and sailed to Argentina in July 1949.[68] His wife refused to accompany him, and they divorced in 1954.[69]

In South America

Mengele worked as a carpenter in Buenos Aires, Argentina, while lodging in a boarding house in the suburb of Vicente López.[70] After a few weeks, he moved to the house of a Nazi sympathizer in the more affluent neighborhood of Florida Este. He next worked as a salesman for his family's farm equipment company, Karl Mengele & Sons, and in 1951 he began making frequent trips to Paraguay as regional sales representative.[71] He moved into an apartment in central Buenos Aires in 1953, used family funds to buy a part interest in a carpentry concern, and then rented a house in the suburb of Olivos in 1954.[72] Files released by the Argentine government in 1992 indicate that Mengele may have practiced medicine without a license while living in Buenos Aires, including performing abortions.[73]

After obtaining a copy of his birth certificate through the West German embassy in 1956, Mengele was issued with an Argentine foreign residence permit under his real name. He used this document to obtain a West German passport, using his real name, and embarked on a trip to Europe.[74][75] He met up with his son Rolf (who was told Mengele was his "Uncle Fritz")[76] and his widowed sister-in-law Martha, for a ski holiday in Switzerland; he also spent a week in his home town of Günzburg.[77][78] When he returned to Argentina in September 1956, Mengele began living under his real name. Martha and her son Karl Heinz followed about a month later, and the three began living together. Josef and Martha were married in 1958 while on holiday in Uruguay, and they bought a house in Buenos Aires.[74][79] Mengele's business interests now included part ownership of Fadro Farm, a pharmaceutical company.[77] Along with several other doctors, he was questioned in 1958 on suspicion of practicing medicine without a license when a teenage girl died after an abortion, but he was released without charge. Aware that the publicity could lead to his Nazi background and wartime activities being discovered, he took an extended business trip to Paraguay and was granted citizenship there in 1959 under the name "José Mengele".[80] He returned to Buenos Aires several times to settle his business affairs and visit his family. Martha and Karl lived in a boarding house in the city until December 1960, when they returned to West Germany.[81]

Mengele's name was mentioned several times during the Nuremberg trials in the mid-1940s, but the Allied forces believed that he was probably already dead.[82] Irene Mengele and the family in Günzburg also alleged that he had died.[83] Working in West Germany, Nazi hunters Simon Wiesenthal and Hermann Langbein collected information from witnesses about Mengele's wartime activities. In a search of the public records, Langbein discovered Mengele's divorce papers, which listed an address in Buenos Aires. He and Wiesenthal pressured the West German authorities into starting extradition proceedings, and an arrest warrant was drawn up on 5 June 1959.[84][85] Argentina initially refused the extradition request because the fugitive was no longer living at the address given on the documents; by the time extradition was approved on 30 June, Mengele had already fled to Paraguay and was living on a farm near the Argentine border.[86]

Efforts by Mossad

In May 1960, Isser Harel, director of the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad, personally led the successful effort to capture Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires. He was hoping to track down Mengele so that he too could be brought to trial in Israel.[87] Under interrogation, Eichmann provided the address of a boarding house that had been used as a safe house for Nazi fugitives. Surveillance of the house did not reveal Mengele or any members of his family, and the neighborhood postman claimed that although Mengele had recently been receiving letters there under his real name, he had since relocated without leaving a forwarding address. Harel's inquiries at a machine shop where Mengele had been part owner also failed to generate any leads, so he was forced to abandon the search.[88]

Despite having provided Mengele with legal documents using his real name in 1956 (which had enabled him to formalize his permanent residency in Argentina), West Germany was now offering a reward for his capture. Continuing newspaper coverage of his wartime activities, with accompanying photographs, led the fugitive to relocate once again in 1960. Former pilot Hans-Ulrich Rudel put him in touch with the Nazi supporter Wolfgang Gerhard, who helped Mengele to cross the border into Brazil.[81][89] He stayed with Gerhard on his farm near São Paulo until more permanent accommodation could be found, with Hungarian expatriates Géza and Gitta Stammer. The couple bought a farm in Nova Europa with the help of an investment from Mengele, who was given the job of managing for them. The three bought a coffee and cattle farm in Serra Negra in 1962, with Mengele owning a half interest.[90] Gerhard had initially told the Stammers that the fugitive's name was "Peter Hochbichler", but they discovered his true identity in 1963. Gerhard persuaded the couple not to report Mengele's location to the authorities by convincing them that they themselves could be implicated for harboring a fugitive.[91] In February 1961, West Germany widened its extradition request to include Brazil, having been tipped off to the possibility that Mengele had relocated there.[92]

Meanwhile, Zvi Aharoni, one of the Mossad agents who had been involved in the Eichmann capture, was placed in charge of a team of agents tasked with tracking down Mengele and bringing him to trial in Israel. Their inquiries in Paraguay revealed no clues to his whereabouts, and they were unable to intercept any correspondence between Mengele and his wife Martha, who by this point was living in Italy. Agents that were following Rudel's movements also failed to produce any leads.[93] Aharoni and his team followed Gerhard to a rural area near São Paulo, where they identified a European man whom they believed to be Mengele.[94] This potential breakthrough was reported to Harel, but the logistics of staging a capture, the budgetary constraints of the search operation, and the priority of focusing on Israel's deteriorating relationship with Egypt led the Mossad chief to call off the manhunt in 1962.[95]

Later life and death

In 1969, Mengele and the Stammers jointly purchased a farmhouse in Caieiras, with Mengele as half owner.[96] When Wolfgang Gerhard returned to Germany in 1971 to seek medical treatment for his ailing wife and son, he gave his identity card to Mengele.[97] The Stammers' friendship with Mengele deteriorated in late 1974, and when they bought a house in São Paulo, he was not invited to join them.[c] The Stammers later bought a bungalow in the Eldorado neighborhood of Diadema, São Paulo, which they rented out to Mengele.[100] Rolf, who had not seen his father since the ski holiday in 1956, visited him at the bungalow in 1977; he found an "unrepentant Nazi" who claimed he had never personally harmed anyone and only carried out his duties as an officer.[101]

Mengele's health had been steadily deteriorating since 1972. He suffered a stroke in 1976,[102] experienced high blood pressure, and developed an ear infection which affected his balance. On 7 February 1979, while visiting his friends Wolfram and Liselotte Bossert in the coastal resort of Bertioga, Mengele suffered another stroke while swimming and drowned.[103] His body was buried in Embu das Artes under the name "Wolfgang Gerhard", whose identification Mengele had been using since 1971.[104] Other aliases used by Mengele in his later life included "Dr. Fausto Rindón" and "S. Josi Alvers Aspiazu".[105]


Meanwhile, sightings of Mengele were being reported all over the world. Wiesenthal claimed to have information that placed Mengele on the Greek island of Kythnos in 1960,[106] in Cairo in 1961,[107] in Spain in 1971,[108] and in Paraguay in 1978, eighteen years after he had left the country.[109] He insisted as late as 1985 that Mengele was still alive—six years after he had died—having previously offered a reward of US$100,000 (equivalent to $300,000 in 2020) in 1982 for the fugitive's capture.[110] Worldwide interest in the case was heightened by a mock trial held in Jerusalem in February 1985, featuring the testimonies of over one hundred victims of Mengele's experiments. Shortly afterwards, the West German, Israeli, and U.S. governments launched a coordinated effort to determine Mengele's whereabouts. The West German and Israeli governments offered rewards for his capture, as did The Washington Times and the Simon Wiesenthal Center.[111]

On 31 May 1985, acting on intelligence received by the West German prosecutor's office, police raided the house of Hans Sedlmeier, a lifelong friend of Mengele and sales manager of the family firm in Günzburg.[112] They found a coded address book and copies of letters sent to and received from Mengele. Among the papers was a letter from Wolfram Bossert notifying Sedlmeier of Mengele's death.[113] German authorities alerted the police in São Paulo, who then contacted the Bosserts. Under interrogation, they revealed the location of Mengele's grave,[114] and the remains were exhumed on 6 June 1985. Extensive forensic examination indicated with a high degree of probability that the body was indeed that of Josef Mengele.[115] Rolf Mengele issued a statement on 10 June confirming that the body was his father's, and he admitted that the news of his father's death had been concealed in order to protect the people who had sheltered him for many years.[116]

In 1992, DNA testing confirmed Mengele's identity beyond doubt,[117] but family members refused repeated requests by Brazilian officials to repatriate the remains to Germany.[118] The skeleton is stored at the São Paulo Institute for Forensic Medicine, where it is used as an educational aid during forensic medicine courses at the University of São Paulo's medical school.[119]

Later developments

In 2007, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum received as a donation the Höcker Album, an album of photographs of Auschwitz staff taken by Karl-Friedrich Höcker. Eight of the photographs include Mengele.[120]

In February 2010, a 180-page volume of Mengele's diary was sold by Alexander Autographs at auction for an undisclosed sum to the grandson of a Holocaust survivor. The unidentified previous owner, who acquired the journals in Brazil, was reported to be close to the Mengele family. A Holocaust survivors' organization described the sale as "a cynical act of exploitation aimed at profiting from the writings of one of the most heinous Nazi criminals".[121] Rabbi Marvin Hier of the Simon Wiesenthal Center was glad to see the diary fall into Jewish hands. "At a time when Ahmadinejad's Iran regularly denies the Holocaust and anti-Semitism and hatred of Jews is back in vogue, this acquisition is especially significant", he said.[122] In 2011, a further 31 volumes of Mengele's diaries were sold—again amidst protests—by the same auction house to an undisclosed collector of World War II memorabilia for US$245,000.[123]


  • Racial-Morphological Examinations of the Anterior Portion of the Lower Jaw in Four Racial Groups. This dissertation, completed in 1935 and first published in 1937, earned him a PhD in anthropology from Munich University. In this work Mengele sought to demonstrate that there were structural differences in the lower jaws of individuals from different ethnic groups, and that racial distinctions could be made based on these differences.[8][124]
  • Genealogical Studies in the Cases of Cleft Lip-Jaw-Palate (1938), his medical dissertation, earned him a doctorate in medicine from Frankfurt University. Studying the influence of genetics as a factor in the occurrence of this deformity, Mengele conducted research on families who exhibited these traits in multiple generations. The work also included notes on other abnormalities found in these family lines.[8][125]
  • Hereditary Transmission of Fistulae Auris. This journal article, published in Der Erbarzt (The Genetic Physician), focuses on fistula auris (an abnormal fissure on the external ear) as a hereditary trait. Mengele noted that individuals who have this trait also tend to have a dimple on their chin.[14]

See also


Informational notes

  1. Based on entries in Mengele's journals and interviews with his friends, historians such as Gerald Posner and Gerald Astor believe that Mengele had a sexual relationship with Gitta Stammer.[98][99]


  1. Lifton 1986, pp. 339–340.


Further reading

External links

  • New arrivals that were judged able to work were admitted into the camp, while those deemed unsuitable for labor were sent to the gas chambers.

  • Of the Hungarians who arrived in mid-1944, 85 percent were killed immediately.[28]

  • Levy 2006, p. 242.

  • USHMM: Josef Mengele.

  • Kubica 1998, p. 320.

  • Astor 1985, p. 102.

  • Astor 1985, p. 12.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 4–5.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 6–7.

  • Kubica 1998, p. 318.

  • Kershaw 2008, p. 81.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 8, 10.

  • Weindling 2002, p. 53.

  • Allison 2011, p. 52.

  • Levy 2006, p. 234 (footnote).

  • Lifton 1986, p. 340.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 11.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 54.

  • Evans 2008, p. 7.

  • Longerich 2010, p. 132.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 16.

  • Kubica 1998, pp. 318–319.

  • Kubica 1998, p. 319.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 16–18.

  • Astor 1985, p. 27.

  • Longerich 2010, pp. 282–283.

  • Steinbacher 2005, pp. 94, 96.

  • Steinbacher 2005, pp. 104–105.

  • Rees 2005, p. 100.

  • Steinbacher 2005, p. 109.

  • Levy 2006, pp. 235–237.

  • Astor 1985, p. 80.

  • Allison 2011, p. 53.

  • Lifton 1985.

  • Astor 1985, p. 78.

  • Levy 2006, pp. 248–249.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 29.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 27.

  • Piper 1998, pp. 170, 172.

  • Kubica 1998, pp. 328–329.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 33.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 33–34.

  • Steinbacher 2005, p. 114.

  • Lifton 1986, pp. 358–359.

  • Nyiszli 2011, p. 57.

  • Kubica 1998, pp. 320–321.

  • Lagnado & Dekel 1991, p. 9.

  • Lifton 1986, p. 341.

  • Lifton 1986, pp. 376–377.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 48.

  • Lifton 1985, p. 337.

  • Lifton 1986, p. 350.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 37.

  • Lifton 1986, p. 351.

  • Lifton 1986, pp. 347, 353.

  • Lifton 1986, p. 362.

  • Lifton 1986, p. 360.

  • Brozan 1982.

  • Lee 1996, p. 85.

  • Schult 2009.

  • Mozes-Kor 1992, p. 57.

  • Levy 2006, p. 255.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 57.

  • Steinbacher 2005, p. 128.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 63.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 63, 68.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 68, 88.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 87.

  • Levy 2006, p. 263.

  • Levy 2006, p. 264–265.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 88, 108.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 95.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 104–105.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 107–108.

  • Nash 1992.

  • Levy 2006, p. 267.

  • Astor 1985, p. 166.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 2.

  • Astor 1985, p. 167.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 111.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 112.

  • Levy 2006, pp. 269–270.

  • Levy 2006, p. 273.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 76, 82.

  • Levy 2006, p. 261.

  • Levy 2006, p. 271.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 121.

  • Levy 2006, pp. 269–270, 272.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 139.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 142–143.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 162.

  • Levy 2006, pp. 279–281.

  • Levy 2006, pp. 280, 282.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 168.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 166–167.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 184–186.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 184, 187–188.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 223.

  • Levy 2006, p. 289.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 178–179.

  • Astor 1985, p. 224.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 242–243.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 2, 279.

  • Levy 2006, pp. 289, 291.

  • Levy 2006, pp. 294–295.

  • Blumenthal 1985, p. 1.

  • Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 586.

  • Segev 2010, p. 167.

  • Walters 2009, p. 317.

  • Walters 2009, p. 370.

  • Levy 2006, p. 296.

  • Levy 2006, pp. 297, 301.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 306–308.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 89, 313.

  • Levy 2006, p. 302.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 315, 317.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, pp. 319–321.

  • Posner & Ware 1986a, p. 322.

  • Saad 2005.

  • Simons 1988.

  • The Guardian 2017.

  • USHMM: SS Auschwitz album.

  • Oster 2010.

  • Hier 2010.

  • Aderet 2011.

  • Lifton 1986, p. 339.